by E.O. Costello



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Draft rating indicating that one was physically unfit for military service. The Wacky Worm warns the audience in Greetings Bait (Freleng, 1943) that those with weak stomachs and 4-F constitutions should not watch his fight with a crab. In Holiday for Shoestrings (Freleng, 1945), a shoe with a fallen arch which is labeled 4-F has its arch fixed, and its classification changed to 1-A, the rating indicating “physically fit for military service”. The horse in The Draft Horse (Jones, 1942) is rejected by the U.S. Army and is classified as 44-F. Bugs, after surviving a near-death experience in Falling Hare (Clampett, 1943), has a heart pounding in his chest which is labeled 4F. In the Blue Danube sequence of A Corny Concerto (Clampett, 1943) the buzzard rejects the little version of Daffy Duck by applying a big 4F sign to his rump.


Landmark Disney feature of 1940 which used a series of classical music sequences as the basis for the film, including a sequence with centaurs set to exceprts from Beethoven’s Sixth Symphony, also known as “The Pastoral”. Deems Taylor was the host, giving rather pretentious introductions to the various segments.

Fantasia was a fun target for Warner Brothers directors and animators. A Corny Concerto (Clampett, 1943) is the biggest spoof of Fantasia, down to the Deems Taylor-like introduction with a seedy Elmer Fudd, and pseudo-pastoral sequences set to Johann Strauss’ “Tales From the Vienna Woods” and “Blue Danube” waltzes. Deems Taylor gets the rib again in Pigs in a Polka (Freleng, 1943), with the introduction by the Big Bad Wolf being done in the Taylor style. The Timid Toreador (Clampett/McCabe, 1940) has a gag in which a bull compacts the sarcastic bullfighter into his horse, creating a centaur -- the cartoon was released just one month after Fantasia opened.


The high-diving actor whose no-show infuriates Yosemite Sam, who forces Bugs to take the Freep’s place in High Diving Hare (Freleng, 1949).


Character actor of the 1930s who was the archetype for the caricature of the lazy, “shif’less Negro”, offensive by today’s standards. Perhaps mercifully, movies with him are rarely shown today.

Fetchit is caricatured in Clean Pastures (Freleng, 1937) as one of the old-fashioned angels, until Heaven gets wise and sends down some hep cats: Fats Waller, Duke Ellington, and Louis Armstrong. One of the Sebben Dwarfs in Coal Black and De Sebben Dwarfs (Clampett, 1943) also appears to be something of a Stepin Fetchit caricature.


A still-extant New Deal agency whose purpose was to stimulate mortgage lending for homes. Occasionally, Warner Brothers cartoonists would draw a house with an FHA sign out front, which surely would have struck a responsive chord with many Depression-era theatergoers.

Examples include: the log cabin accidentally created by the title character with his plow in The Draft Horse (Jones, 1942), Johnny Smith and Poker-Huntas (Avery, 1938), and the nest built by the bluebirds in Farm Frolics (Clampett, 1941).


Long running radio show on NBC starring Jim Jordan as Fibber McGee, a small-town blowhard, and Marian Jordan playing the part of his long-suffering wife Molly. (The two were married in real life.) Arthur Q. Bryan, the voice of Elmer Fudd, was a supporting player on this show, which also spawned a spinoff based on the Great Gildersleeve character played by Hal Peary. One of the show’s most memoralbe sound gags was a closet which, when opened, spilt forth mountains of junk.

A number of characters and catch-phrases from this show found their way into Warner Brothers cartoons, including “’taint Funny McGee”, “I Betcha”, Myrt the telephone operator, Gildersleeve, the Old Timer and his line “’tain’t the way I heerd it, Johnny!”, among others.


Famed vaudeville juggler and comic who appeared in numerous editions of the Ziegfeld Follies, where he made his pool table routines famous. Fields made a career out of playing various hapless misanthropes in the 1930s. As health problems forced a cutback in movie appearances in the late 1930s, he found a career in radio, playing opposite Charlie McCarthy, the creation of Edgar Bergen, on the Chase and Sanborn radio program. His trademarks were his sonorous voice, his love of highfalutin’ words and booze, and his bulbous red nose. The last two were particular targets of jibes by McCarthy.

Fields and his nose were used quite often in Warner-released cartoons. At Your Service, Madame (Freleng, 1936) features a “W.C. Squeals” pig attempting to con a widow pig out of an inheritance, until one of her sons exposes him. Note the character’s pool-cue style of using the cane to ring the door bell. Cracked Ice (Tashlin, 1938) again features Fields as a pig, this time attempting to separate a St. Bernard dog from his hooch, simultaneously fending off barbs from McCarthy, who is alleged to be in the theatre’s audience.

Two Freleng cartoons, Little Blabbermouse and Shop, Look and Listen (both 1940) both utilize a W.C. Fields-like mouse, complete with red nose. At one point in Shop, Look and Listen a robotic card cheat is shot by another robot, triggering the observation from the mouse that “it just goes to show you can’t cheat an honest man”. From the motion picture of the same name. Plug. Endquote. You Can’t Cheat an Honest Man was released by Universal in 1939, and starred Fields.

Slightly less consequential Fields gags are seen in Book Revue (Clampett, 1946), Have You Got Any Castles? (Tashlin, 1938) on the cover of “So Red the Nose”, Porky’s Road Race (Tashlin, 1937) helping out Edna Mae Oliver, A Star is Hatched (Freleng, 1938) twice: once as a traffic cop using his nose as a stop light, and again, using his nose as a studio warning light, also seen with McCarthy here, The Coo-coo Nut Grove (Freleng, 1936) along with a Katherine Hepburn caricature and The Woods Are Full of Cuckoos (Tashlin, 1937) as “W.C. Fieldmouse”.


Term with its origin in the Spanish Civil War. General Emilio Mola, a pro-Franco, Nationalist general boasted that he had four columns of troops marching against Madrid, and a fifth column of sympathizers inside the city itself. The phrase was popularized in the U.S. by Ernest Hemingway, who wrote a play enitled Fifth Column about the war.

Aside from the title of Fifth Column Mouse (Freleng, 1943), the phrase is used, quite appropriately, in the wolf-in-sheep’s-clothing gag in Foney Fables (Freleng, 1942). Porky Pig asks all Fifth Columnists to leave the theatre before a newsreel full of military secrets is shown in Meet John Doughboy (Clampett, 1941).


Swashbuckling, scandal-plagued hero of numerous Warner Brothers costume dramas of the 1930s, including the classic Adventures of Robin Hood (1938), a clip of which appears at the end of Rabbit Hood (Jones, 1949). Also well remembered for standout films such as The Sea Hawk, The Dawn Patrol and The Charge of the Light Brigade. His trial for statutory rape in 1942 -- he was acquitted -- damaged his reputation and spawned the phrase “In like Flynn, much to his chagrin”.

Flynn is one of the students of Kay Kyser in Hollywood Steps Out (Avery, 1941). Daffy Duck, posing as a movie director and conning the studio cop in Hollywood Daffy (Freleng, 1946) asks the cop “what has Errol Flynn got that you haven’t?”, followed quickly by an aside to the audience that they were not to answer that. Porky asks Leon Schlesinger what Errol Flynn had that he (Porky) did not in You Ought to be In Pictures (Freleng, 1940). Bugs snaps to the audience at the joust he is participating in in Knights Must Fall (Freleng, 1949), asking rhetorically if they were expecting Flynn, given the appearence of Bugs on a little donkey.


In Scrap Happy Daffy (Tashlin, 1943) Daffy discovers that the goat who has been noshing on his scrap pile is a Nazi -- his swastika medallion being a dead giveaway -- and indicates to the audience that the goat is a Focke-Wulf in sheeps clothing. Focke-Wulf was a maker of German warplanes during World War II, most notably the deadly F-W 190 fighter plane.


Loud, I say, LOUD rooster (rooster, that is) who is probably the most enduring legacy of Robert McKimson’s directorial career. While the Foggy cartoons eventually fell into the same formulaic rut in the mid-1950s as the Speedy Gonzales and Hippety Hopper shorts, the Foghorn Leghorn shorts are generally much easier to take. The cartoons are likeable partly because of the character’s boisterous high spirits and constant asides the audience regarding the shortcomings of his opponents, to say nothing of the indignities he inflicts on the hapless Barnyard Dog who is usually the butt of his practical jokes. It is usually enjoyable to see Foggy get his comeuppance at the hands of Miss Prissy or the eternally tortured dog. It is no less enjoyable on the rare occasions on which Foggy wins, as in Crowing Pains (1947).

McKimson is on record as citing a sheriff character from the 1930s radio show Blue Monday Jamboree as a primary inspiration for Foggy. However, given the southern accent of the character and his habit of bellowing “that’s a joke, son” it is clear that the character was inspired by the immortal figure of Senator Claghorn, the equally blustery southern senator played by Kenny Delmar on the Fred Allen radio show in the 1940s. Compare the clear Claghorn caricature in Rebel Rabbit (McKimson, 1949) with Foggy and note the similarities. For his part, Mel Blanc stated the he based the character on a hard of hearing sheriff from an old vaudeville routine. Cartoon voice expert Keith Scott has made a persuasive case that Jack Clifford had created this kind of a voice for programs on KFWB in the early 1930s, and argues that both Delmar and Blanc were familiar with his character.

Foghorn Leghorn’s debut in Walky Talky Hawky (1946) netted McKimson one of his only two Oscar nominations.


Contemporary of Jerry Lewis famed for playing dimwits. The character of Pete Puma in Rabbit’s Kin (McKimson, 1952) is largely a Fontaine take-off.


All-purpose nonsense word created by Bill Holman for his manic comic strip Smokey Stover. A single Sunday panel from September, 1938 uses the word no less than ten times in different contexts. Needless to say, this nonsense did not escape the eye of Bob Clampett, who used the word twice: once in The Daffy Doc (1938) in the series of signs Daffy uses to get silence (“Silence is Foo!”), and again on a sign in Porky in Wackland (1938).

Pity that none of the other nonsense phrases from the strip (examples: “Notary Sojac” and “1506 Nix Nix”) ever made it into the cartoons. “Foo” also makes an appearence in The Isle of Pingo Pongo (Avery, 1939) on the microphone the Fats Waller-like native sings into.

(fl. 2000)

Talented vocal actress who has played numerous female roles at Warner Brothers, most prominently Granny, which, in fact, she still performs for The Sylvester and Tweety Mysteries on the WB television network. She also provided voices for Witch Hazel and the Alice mouse in the Honeymousers cartoons. Foray also played the part of Rocket (“Rocky”) J. Squirrel on the Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, and characters not dissimilar to Witch Hazel for other studios.


Jones cartoon of 1953 starring an unusually stupid Bugs Bunny who gets inducted into the Army in place of his neighbor, B. Bonny. A sergeant, not unlike the bully construction worker in Homeless Hare (Jones, 1950), upon learning the name of the new recruit, makes a sarcastic reference to himself as Sgt. Porky Pig, only to be topped by a colonel who refers to himself as Col. Puddy Tat and also refers to a General Tweety Pie.


One of the principal writers at the studio from the thirties clear into the early 1960s. Before moving to Warner Brothers, Foster had worked at Fleischer’s. Foster played a major role in shaping a number of characters at the studio through his work with Bob McKimson and especially through his long association in the 1950s with Friz Freleng. Foster was responsible for writing the vast majority of the Sylvester-vs.-Tweety cartoons that Freleng directed.

The departure of Foster and Mike Maltese to Hanna-Barbera in the early 1960s, where Foster worked on The Jetsons and The Flintstones, marked the end of an era of writing at Warners, and heralded the ultimate demise of the classic era of production.

A billboard in Nothing But The Tooth (Davis, 1948) shows that it was placed by the firm of “Warren & Foster”.


Close harmony group who was responsible for the mimicry of Louis Armstrong, Fats Waller and Cab Calloway in Clean Pastures (Freleng, 1937).


Jones cartoon of 1942 involving a fox who tries to sell himself to a fox fur farm. The title is likely a parody of the contemporary radio interview show Vox Pop.


A blatant rip-off of Mickey Mouse, essentially Mickey with pointy ears and a bushy tail, this character was deservedly short-lived. Had a Bosko-like voice.


  • Lady Play Your Mandolin (Marsales, 1931) first Merrie Melodie
  • Smile, Darn Ya Smile (Harman/Ising, 1931)
  • One More Time (Harman/Ising, 1931)


In The Lyin’ Mouse (Freleng, 1937), a lion is captured by a device labeled as belonging to the Frank Cluck Expedition. This is likely a reference to Frank Buck, the famous “Bring ’em Back Alive” hunter of that era.


For many years, Franklyn was the assistant to musical direcor Carl Stalling, arranging the scores that Stalling wrote. Based on the recent releases of compact disks in The Carl Stalling Project series, Franklyn seems to have conducted many of the recording sessions with the musicians of the Warner Brothers Orchestra. Franklyn received some solo credits starting in the mid-1950s, Bugs and Thugs (Freleng, 1954) being an early example. Through the mid-to-late 1950s, Stalling and Franklyn shared the musical direction credit on a number of occasions, Franklyn occasionally receiving arrangement credit. When Stalling retired, Franklyn succeeded him as musical director, his first solo efforts appearing in 1958.

Most critics agree that Franklyn was Stalling’s logical successor. While his scores are not generally as witty as Stalling’s, they are quite well crafted. The author takes the position that his best work was for What’s Opera, Doc? (Jones, 1958) and High Note (Jones, 1960). Richard Stone, the current musical director for “WB” animation, has made deliberate efforts to recapture the Stalling/Franklyn style.

Franklyn died unexpectedly in 1962. His successor, Bill Lava, did not prove to be nearly as imaginative. Examine The Jet Cage (Freleng, 1962) in which one half the score was overseen by Franklyn, the other half by Lava.

(fl. 1997)

Voice actor who had a popular following in the 1950s with a witty and satirical radio program, one of the last truly great radio shows. Freberg made numerous records, including a biting satire of the notorious “Red-baiter” senator Joseph McCarthy.

At Warner Brothers, Freberg had three continuing roles, that of Baby Bear -- also known as Junior or Junyer Bear, the mouse Hubie opposite Mel Blanc’s Bertie, and one of the Goofy Gophers, again opposite Blanc.

It is the author’s opinion that Freberg played the Gopher with the fruitier, lower-pitched voice. The gopher with the higher-pitched voice sounds almost identical to the little skunk who taunts Yosemite Sam in Bugs Bunny Rides Again (Freleng, 1948), leading me to believe that both characters were voiced by Blanc.

Freberg also voiced Pete Puma, reprising the role for a theatrical release in 1997.


Caricature of Fred MacMurray as a bear in The Woods Are Full of Cuckoos (Tashlin, 1937).


A gag relying on exquisite timing, in which one character chases another character, the prey usually ducking in and out of doors at a dizzying pace as the pursuer attempts to follow the character. Freleng used this gag to great effect in Little Red Riding Rabbit (1944) and Buccaneer Bunny (1948).


One of the giants not just of Warner Brothers animation, but of animation in general. Friz Freleng had connections with the Warner Brothers studio for over 60 years, directing nearly 300 cartoons, four of which won Oscars, more than any other director from the studio. Even other giants of Warner Brothers animation -- perhaps most notably Chuck Jones, have acknowledged his influence and reputation.

Like Ub Iwerks, Walt Disney, Carl Stalling, and J.B. “Bugs” Hardaway, Freleng was a Kansas City native. Freleng originally started out at Kansas City Film Ad in the early 1920s, the studio that also employed Iwerks and Disney. Freleng came out west to California to join Disney in 1927, replacing Ham Hamilton, who left Disney in late 1926. (Hamilton and Freleng would work together at Disney in 1928, when Hamilton returned, and later at Schlesinger’s in the early 30s.) This was actually Freleng’s first experience in a professional animation studio, and he was mentored by Iwerks, who taught him some of the fundamentals of working with characters and objects, including tanks.

Freleng caught on rapidly, and some of his work on Alice’s Picnic (a 1927 “Alice in Cartoonland” short) recalls the primitive beginnings of personality animation -- a scene showing a little kitten climbing out of a wash tub marks an early effort at distinguishing cartoon characters with similar appearances from each another. (The concept would first bear full fruit in the 1933 Disney short The Three Little Pigs.) Freleng would continue to work on Oswald the Lucky Rabbit cartoons through 1927-1928. Alongside Iwerks, he headed one of the two Disney units.

Freleng was one of the group that left Disney in 1928, recruited away by Disney’s then-distributor Charles Mintz. Freleng worked on a number of cartoons in Mintz’s Krazy Kat series before he was recruited by ex-Disney colleagues Hugh Harman and Rudy Ising to join them in a new studio formed with Leon Schlesinger to produce cartoons for distribution by Warner Brothers. (In 1929, Harman and Ising had produced and sold a pilot film, Bosko the Talk-Ink Kid, on which Freleng had done some work.) Freleng is one of the animators credited on the first Warner Brothers cartoon, Sinkin’ in the Bathtub (1930). Freleng would continue to animate until 1933, when Harman and Ising left the studio in a money dispute with Schlesinger. Freleng was subsequently promoted to director, a title that he would never relinquish.

Most of his cartoons during the 1930s were in the color Merrie Melodies series, and thus were mostly musicals. In I Haven’t Got A Hat (Freleng, 1935) a primitive Porky Pig -- based partly on a Freleng childhood chum and partly on some suggestions of Bob Clampett -- made his first appearance. By the studio’s contemporary standards, Freleng’s cartoons were sophisticated. For some time, he was the studio’s principal director.

Freleng was lured to MGM in 1937 by the promises of a higher salary and bigger budgets for cartoons. Be that as it may, his tenure there was not successful, largely because he was forced to make cartoons in the “Captain & the Kids” series based on the comic strip “The Katzenjammer Kids”. The series was a complete commercial failure, although the cartoons themselves were modestly funny. The principal legacy Freleng left at MGM was his influence on two up-and-coming directors, Bill Hanna and Joseph Barbera.

Freleng returned to Schlesinger’s in 1939, and it is clear that his style had improved immeasurably during his absence from the studio. Freleng played a key role in the early development of Bugs Bunny with cartoons such as Fresh Hare and The Hare-Brained Hypnotist (both 1942).

It was around this time that Freleng directed one of his first real masterpieces, Rhapsody in Rivets (1941). It is a cartoon wholly without dialogue: it relies solely on construction-work gags synchronised to Liszt’s Second Hungarian Rhapsody to summon the laughs. The film was one of two Freleng efforts nominated that year for an Oscar, the other being Hiawatha’s Rabbit Hunt. Rhapsody in Rivets foreshadowed such great musical cartoons as Pigs in a Polka (another Oscar-nominated cartoon of Freleng’s, 1943), and what is, in the my opinion, his ultimate masterpiece: Rhapsody Rabbit (1946). This film was similarly almost devoid of dialogue; and again it relied on the music of Liszt, coupled with some of the most beautiful and colorful animation ever to appear in any Warner Brothers film.

Freleng, by a fluke of fate, was probably robbed of an Academy Award for this cartoon. The Technicolor processing labs accidentally delivered footage from this cartoon to MGM, where Hanna and Barbera were working on a similar cartoon, The Cat Concerto. Seeing that Freleng was ahead of them, MGM rushed work on the cartoon and got it qualified for contention in 1946, the same year as Rhapsody Rabbit, even though the MGM cartoon would not go into general release until 1947. During the nomination process, The Cat Concerto was shown before Rhapsody Rabbit, leading Freleng to surmise that voters thought he had copied MGM. Cat Concerto went on to win the Oscar.

Freleng would successfully battle the feckless Eddie Selzer (successor to Leon Schlesinger) to produce cartoons starring Tweety (originally created by Bob Clampett) the way Freleng wanted. As usual, the artist was right, and Tweetie Pie (Freleng, 1947) proved to be a big hit, winning Freleng his first Oscar (although as producer, Selzer accepted and kept the Oscar as his own). This would be the start of a long string of cartoons co-starring the cat Sylvester, and a series that would win another Oscar (for Birds Anonymous in 1957), as well as other nominations.

Freleng also introduced an explosive little character around this time who shared his red hair, small size and explosive temper: Yosemite Sam. Freleng, who was bored with Fudd, created Sam to provide a real challenge to Bugs. In a long series of cartoons, Sam proved indeed to be a challenge to Bugs, if ultimately an unsuccessful one. His work with these characters brought in yet another Oscar for Freleng, for the classic Knighty Knight Bugs (1958). Freleng would also adapt Speedy Gonzales (created by Bob McKimson), refine the character into his final form in Speedy Gonzales (1955), for which he would win yet another Oscar for his work at the studio.

More than anything else -- including his exceptionally long tenure at the studio -- it is Freleng’s mastery of razor-sharp timing that cements his reputation as a great director. A cartoon like High Diving Hare (1949) has only one joke: Sam gets Bugs to go up a ladder to perform a high dive, and Bugs tricks Sam into taking the dive instead. It is his ability to time the repetition of these gags, particularly in a sequence where we see only Sam going up a ladder, a pause, and then Sam going down to a dive to splash off-screen, that really makes the cartoon work. Canned Feud (1951) is yet another example of Freleng using timing and pantomime acting to brilliantly put a cartoon across. Still another example is the Private Snafu short Pay Day (1944), which is almost completely without dialogue, but puts across the message -- the folly of not saving money -- with remarkable clarity and punch.

With the closure of the Warner Brothers cartoon studio in the early 1960s, Freleng would form an alliance with Dave Depatie to create the Pink Panther series, for which Freleng won yet another Oscar, for The Pink Phink (1964). Freleng would produce, if not direct, cartoons for Warner Brothers in the mid-1960s, as well as other cartoons for television. Freleng would return to Warners in 1980 to direct television specials and various compilation features.

To summarize, I quote Chuck Jones, speaking of Freleng soon after his death:

“He was a giant in my best estimation, and it is hard to recognize a giant in your midst when he is only 5-foot-4. He was quite conceivably the best short-subject animation editor who ever lived.”

Freleng received story credit for the following cartoons which he actually directed:

  • From Hare to Heir (1960)
  • Lighter Than Hare (1960)
  • Rebel Without Claws (1961)
  • The Jet Cage (1962)
  • Devils Feud Cake (with Warren Foster, 1963)

The nickname “Friz” is said, by some accounts, to have derived from a fictional congressman “Frizby” used in a column of the Los Angeles Examiner newspaper.

An exceptional Freleng caricature is seen in Hasty Hare (Jones, 1952), in which he is caricatured as I. Frisby, the head of the Shalomar Observatory. (It would be interesting to know if a threat to quit to take up turkey farming was a longstanding Freleng joke.) Freleng can also be seen as one of the Gremlins in Russian Rhapsody (Clampett, 1944). Freleng is also mentioned in the rant by Hitler at the start of the same cartoon.

In the years before nicknames were allowed in the credits of Warner Brothers cartoons, often one could detect the use of the word “Friz” in the background paintings in various Freleng cartoons. There is, for example, the billboard for “Hotel Friz” passed by the speeding cars at the start of Racketeer Rabbit (Freleng, 1946). Friz is one of the names carved on the door jamb Bugs is leaning against in Bugs Bunny Rides Again (Freleng, 1948), and on a soda can seen in I Taw a Putty Tat (Freleng, 1948). “Friz - Americas Favorite Gelatin Dessert” is seen on a crate in Putty Tat Twouble (Freleng, 1951), along with a portrait. Frizby is one of the dogs listed in Bosko’s Big Race (Harman/Ising, 1932).


Sweet, innocent, and maniacally hyperactive puppy who is the bane of the existence of Claude Cat in a trio of first-rate Jones cartoons: Two’s a Crowd (1950), Terrier Stricken (1952), incidentally featuring some great animation by Ken Harris, and No Barking (1954), with yet more great Ken Harris animation.


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This page was originally maintained by Stephen Worth. Thanks to John K. for funding its production. Preserved by Kip Williams and restored in 2014 by Harry McCracken.
The Warner Brothers Cartoon Companion is Copyright 1996-1998
E. O. Costello. All rights reserved.