by E.O. Costello



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Alphabetical Listings

A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z



Clampett cartoon of 1941 which is one of the earliest Elmer Fudd/Bugs Bunny face-offs. The cartoon uses the rounder, fatter Fudd that was rather like the man who provided his voice, Arthur Q. Bryan. It is also noteworthy as one of the very few instances where deliberate fun was had with the credits, which are rendered in “Fudd-ese”. The author has seen comparisons between this cartoon and the Disney cartoon Donald’s Vacation (1940).


Popular jazz pianist of the 1920s and 30s who made frequent appearances on radio, often referring to himself as “300 pounds of jive and joviality”. Waller caricatures can be seen in Clean Pastures (Freleng, 1937), in The Woods Are Full of Cuckoos (Tashlin, 1937) as “Fats Swallow”, and most notably in Tin Pan Alley Cats (Clampett, 1943), where the main character, a Waller-like cat, is sent into a Wackyland-like setting, re-using and updating some of the animation from Porky in Wackyland (Clampett, 1938).


One of the means by which the U.S. Government financed its war effort during both the First and Second World Wars was through the sale of War Bonds: low-denomination government securities sold directly to citizens. (United States Savings Bonds fulfill a similar function today.) Even lower demonination War Savings Stamps were sold, mostly to children, who could save them up and turn them in for a War Bond. War Bonds were partly used as an effort to get civilians involved in the war effort, partly as a financing tool, and partly as an anti-inflationary measure, to get money out of circulation in a time when a lot of money was chasing after a small amount of goods, due to the wartime economy.

Hollywood celebrities were recruited for the effort to pitch these bonds. Carole Lombard died in a plane crash when returning from one such rally. Kate Smith did more than nearly any other star in personally pitching war bonds, literally selling millions through her efforts.

Cartoons were also a part of this sales effort. Leon Schlesinger contracted with the U.S. Treasury to put out a short selling War Bonds starring Bugs Bunny. Initiated before Pearl Harbor and completed in early 1942, the short’s on-screen title is Leon Schlesinger Presents Bugs Bunny, but has generally come to be known as The Bugs Bunny Bond Rally. The film features Bugs singing the Irving Berlin song “Any Bonds Today?“, backed up by Porky Pig and the fatter version of Elmer Fudd. The short was produced by the Clampett unit.

The famous “Minuteman” poster used to sell bonds throughout the war can be seen at the very beginning of The Wacky Wabbit (Clampett, 1942) stuck inside a cactus. A modified version of it can also be seen in Fifth Column Mouse (Freleng, 1943) with a rodent version of the minuteman. The Weakly Reporter (Jones, 1944) extolls the virtues of hoarding War Bonds, and an ad for War Bonds appears at the end of The Ducktators (McCabe, 1942), although it is usually cut from prints shown today. A poster urging the purchase of War Bonds was added to the re-used animation from Clampett’s Scalp Trouble (1939) that made up Freleng’ Slightly Daffy (1944). The grasshopper in Foney Fables (Freleng, 1942) may be as lazy as his fabled counterpart, but he demonstrates that he is much smarter, flashing a wad of War Bonds.


Long-time animator in Jones’ unit whose talents complemented those of his colleague Ken Harris. Jones, in the first volume of his autobiography, pens a warm and moving tribute to Washam. Washam was one of the Jones staffers who followed him to MGM to work on the Tom and Jerry series there after the closure of the Warner Brothers animation Studio. Unlike Harris, Abe Levitow and Maurice Noble of the Jones unit, Washam did not get a chance to direct at Warner Brothers. He did go on to direct cartoons at MGM.

A native of Arkansas, Washam was allegedly the source of the famous Daffy Duck line in Duck Amuck (Jones, 1953), “Thanks for the sour persimmons, cousin!”

Along with Sid Marcus, Washam received story credit for Gone Batty (McKimson, 1954).


African-American musician (?) of the 1940s. Watson voiced the role of Prince Chawmin’, labeled “De Prince” on some model sheets, in Coal Black and De Sebben Dwarfs (Clampett, 1943).


In Animato! #31, Hames Ware identifies Webb as a voice actor who did a number of Pinto Colvig-like voices for a variety of cartoons studios, including work for The Country Mouse (Freleng, 1935) and possibly the Gildersleeve voice in Hare Conditioned (Jones, 1945). Ware indicates that little was known about Danny Webb, save that he starred in a Columbia live action short, A Star is Shorn (1939). But then Ware made the connection with


In Animato! #32, Hames Ware briefly described the uncredited career of Weber, crediting him with the voices, variously, of Rochester, Fred Allen, Edward G. Robinson, Walter Winchell, and the camel in Porky in Egypt (Clampett, 1938). Ware does not identify other cartoons, though one could guess that Thugs With Dirty Mugs (Avery, 1939), which features a Robinson caricature that does Fred Allen at one point, is probably one of the cartoons Weber worked on. [Note since first writing: In a later article, Ware confirms this.] He also contends that Weber provided the voice of Egghead, based on contemporary knowledge of his imitations of Joe Penner, whose voice was used as the model for Egghead’s.

Ware later puts forth the startling idea that Webb and Weber were no less than one and the same person (Animato! #34). The identification was done through diligent detective work and photo comparisons. Ware also credits him with doing the Lionel Barrymore fish in Fresh Fish (Avery, 1939), Walter Winchell in several cartoons including The Lone Stranger and Porky (Clampett, 1939), Rochester in Pied Piper Porky (Clampett, 1939) and the mad camel in Porky in Egypt (Clampett, 1938). Weber/Webb seems to have been also responsible for a deep, froggy voice used in a number of cartoons, such as Count Me Out (Hardaway/Dalton, 1938).


Athlete who parlayed an Olympic gold medal-winning swimming career -- he won in 1924 and 1928 -- into a movie career, most memorably as Tarzan in a long series of films, and then as Jungle Jim, when his gut got too big for a leopard skin.

Caricatures of Weismuller, usually giving the trademark Tarzan yell, can be seen in The Coo-coo Nut Grove (Freleng, 1936), Hollywood Daffy (Freleng, 1946), Hollywood Steps Out (Avery, 1941) in a nifty gag with Weismuller shedding a formal overcoat to reveal his leopard skin, and Gorilla My Dreams (McKimson, 1948).


Comedienne with the hourglass figure and the every-ready double enténdre who was a fixture in early thirties films, until the advent of the Production Code drastically limited her range. Still, she was able to give a memorable performance opposite W.C. Fields in My Little Chickadee (1940), in which Fields uttered her trademark line “Come up and see me sometime.” Caricatures of West can be seen in A Star is Hatched (Freleng, 1938) with a dressing room with an hourglass-shaped door, and dancing with a George Arliss turtle in The Coo-coo Nut Grove (Freleng, 1936).


Until perhaps the 1960s, telegrams were one of the few ways, aside from using the telephone, that people could communicate dependably and quickly with one another over long distances. Following the demise of rival Postal Telegraph in the early 1940s, Western Union was the principal telegram service for the United States. It is likely for legal reasons that when telegrams were used in a gag, the Western Union name was disguised, usually thinly. For example, The Impatient Patient (McCabe, 1942) uses “Western Onion”, whereas Buckaroo Bugs (Clampett, 1944) and Rabbit Transit (Freleng, 1947) use “Western Bunions”. “Western Junior” is yet another version that was used at times.


An oft-repeated line of Chester Riley, the character played by William Bendix on the radio (later television) program The Life of Riley. Daffy Duck says the phrase just after being suited up in toreador outfit by the bull in Mexican Joyride (Davis, 1947).


Joe E. Brown movie from 1937 described by Leonard Maltin as “slight, meandering slapstick with Brown trying his best as an astrology-obsessed prizefighter whose prowess depends on the position of the stars.” The opening Technicolor sequence, featuring animation of zodiac characters, was Bob Clampett’s first work as director. It would be his only work in colour until 1941.


Catch-phrase associated with the Sheriff deadeye character of Red Skelton. The line is said, usually by Yosemite Sam, in Buckaroo Bugs (Clampett, 1944), Sahara Hare (Freleng, 1955), and Knighty Knight Bugs (Freleng, 1958).


Bandleader known as “The King of Jazz”. Many of George Gershwin’s songs, including “Rhapsody in Blue” were associated with Whiteman. In Wake Up the Gypsy in Me (Harman/Ising, 1933), the bandleader of a group of Russkies turns to face the camera, and it turns out to be Whiteman. The clarinetist thereupon goes into the famous clarinet solo that opens “Rhapsody in Blue”.

Whiteman is also something of a footnote figure in animation history. For his movie The King of Jazz (1930), Walter Lantz was commissioned to do a brief animation sequence in two-strip Technicolor showing how Whiteman supposedly earned his title hunting in Africa. This was the first cartoon to utilise Technicolor, predating Disney’s Flowers and Trees, the first cartoon in three-strip Technicolor, by two years.


A predator blessed with enormous intelligence and perseverence; yet cursed with a level of luck that would stagger Job. He fails repeatedly in his quest to catch the Roadrunner, partly due to his use -- or misuse -- of the products of the Acme firm.

A co-creation of Chuck Jones and Mike Maltese, the Coyote would pursue the Roadrunner throughout a fifteen year span during the Classic era. The Coyote also did battle with Bugs Bunny in a handful of memorable shorts; in which he had a well-educated, highly-cultured voice and a simply fabulous ego. Witness his famous line of self-introduction as “Wile E. Coyote, Genius.” The same title is proudly emblazoned on the mailbox he maintains in Compressed Hare (Jones, 1961).

In only one Roadrunner cartoon, Zoom at the Top (Jones, 1962), does the carnivore actually utter an articulate word: an understated “ouch” after being mangled by a huge steel trap.

The series provided Jones with some relief, in that the Coyote cartoons could be turned out faster and less expensively than some of his other cartoons. The considerably more sophisticated and expensive What’s Opera, Doc? was made possible, in part, by the fact that Jones and his staff diverted time and resources to it which had originally been allocated for a fairly routine Coyote production. It is perhaps worthy of note here that four out of the eight cartoons released by Jones in 1961 were Coyote cartoons. The reader is referred to Chuck Amuck for a detailed discussion of the so-called “rules” he applied to the series.

Ironically enough, the series began as a parody of chase cartoons in the same vein as Fair and Wormer (Jones, 1946). The character was based in part on the description Mark Twain gave of coyotes in Roughing It, Twain being a seminal influence on Jones. Jones has readily acknowledged the influence of Frank Tashlin’s The Fox and the Grapes (Columbia, 1941) for the blackout gag concept.

There was a gap of three years between the first and second cartoons in the Roadrunner series; Jones was inspired to make more entries when he received a letter from a military aviator noting the popularity of the first cartoon, Fast and Furry-ous (1949), to the extent that some pilots were calling “Beep Beep” to one another during excercise maneuvers.

The original model sheet for the character bears a label referring to the character as “Don Coyote”, in reference to Miguel Ceverantes’ Don Quixote.

Jones and Maltese developed another character, Ralph Wolf, who was identical to Wile E. Coyote, save for a taste for mutton and a red nose.

Filmography, all directed by Jones:

  • Fast and Furry-ous (1949)
  • Beep Beep (1952)
  • Going Going Gosh (1952)
  • Operation: Rabbit (1952) with Bugs
  • Zipping Along (1953)
  • Stop, Look and Hasten (1954)
  • Ready, Set, Zoom! (1955)
  • Guided Muscle (1955)
  • Gee Whiz-z-z (1956)
  • There They Go-Go-Go (1956)
  • To Hare is Human (1956) with Bugs
  • Scrambled Aches (1957)
  • Zoom and Board (1957)
  • Whoa, Be Gone (1958)
  • Hook, Line and Stinker (1958)
  • Hip Hip Hurry (1958)
  • Hot Rod and Reel (1959)
  • Wild About Hurry (1959)
  • Fatest With the Mostest (1960)
  • Hopalong Casualty (1960)
  • Rabbit’s Feat (1960) with Bugs
  • Zip ’n’ Snort (1961)
  • Lickety Splat (1961)
  • Beep Prepared (1961)
  • Compressed Hare (1961) with Bugs
  • Zoom at the Top (1962)
  • To Beep or Not to Beep (1963)
  • Hare-Breadth Hurry (1963)
  • War and Pieces (1964)


Utility industry executive who became the dark horse Republican candidate for President in 1940, finishing respectably against Franklin Roosevelt. During World War II, he became a sort of roving ambassador for Roosevelt, and was viewed as having given a highly credible performance in that role.

A portrait of Willkie can be seen next to Roosevelt as the Mt. Rushmore figures of choice for Republicans and Democrats in Aviation Vacation (Avery, 1941). The Gremlin loudly indicates to Bugs Bunny that he is not Willkie in Falling Hare (Clampett, 1943).


Announcer on the Jack Benny radio program, who read many of the commercials on the show and occasionally butchered them. Along with the rest of the show’s primary actors, Wilson provided the voice for his own caricature in The Mouse That Jack Built (McKimson, 1959).


Feared gossip columnist who worked primarily for the New York Daily Mirror. Winchell was at the peak of his power broadcasting on the NBC Blue Network in the 1930s, where he could make or break careers based solely on what he said about people of prominence. Winchell was known for high-energy delivery, imbuing his words with a great sense of urgency, reportedly due to his practice of drinking glassfuls of water shortly before each broadcast. The show opened with the sound of a radio telegraph sounding furiously, as Winchell breathlessly opened his show with the phrase “Good evening, Mr. and Mrs. America and all the ships at sea”.

Speaking of the Weather (Tashlin, 1937) has a Winchell caricature peeping through the keyhole in Look magazine and reporting the escape of a convict in Radio News magazine. His so-called “feud” with bandleader Ben Bernie was used as the basis for gags in both The Coo-coo Nut Grove (Freleng, 1936) and The Woods Are Full of Cuckoos (Tashlin, 1937). Winchell sound-alikes, probably voiced by Dave Weber are heard in Johnny Smith and Poker-Huntas (Avery, 1938) advising Pokerhuntas to save Smith, as well as in Herr Meets Hare (Freleng, 1945) in the first scene, noting that Hermann Göering is resting his nerves in the Black Forest. The town crier in The Hardship of Miles Standish (Freleng, 1940) imitates the Winchell delivery, shouting “Flash! What maid is that way about a certain captain?”.


Writer and member of the Algonquin Round Table who hosted the Town Crier radio program on CBS in the 1930s. Woolcott is caricatured as the bell-ringing owl in The Woods Are Full of Cuckoos (Tashlin, 1937). Woolcott was also caricatured in Have You Got Any Castles? (Tashlin, 1938). However, as noted by Beck and Friedwald, Woolcott objected to the caricature, and it was subsequently removed from reissue prints, including those shown on television. Just before the deleted portion, one can hear the bell, and see the shadow of the caricature against the books in the library.


Popular gag used in Warner Brothers cartoons in which character A says a phrase, character B loudly contradicts it, and the argument goes back and forth, until character B suddenly adopts character A’s position, causing character A to adopt character B’s position, which was character B’s intent all along. Usually, this ends in disaster for character A.

Classic examples of this gag are found in the Hunter’s Trilogy, in which Bugs repeatedly uses language -- Daffy identifies it as “pronoun trouble” -- to get Daffy on the business end of a shotgun. Other examples are the argument Bugs Bunny has with the Gashouse Gorilla disguised as an umpire in Baseball Bugs (Freleng, 1946) and Porky allowing Daffy to convince him that he is an eagle in Duck Soup to Nuts (Freleng, 1944).


Acronym for the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal-era agency. This organization, at least if you believe its critics, was involved almost exclusively in make-work projects -- unlike, say, its sister agency the PWA, which built major public works projects such as the Hoover Dam. Fresh Fish (Avery, 1939) has a shovelnose shark who is digging in the ocean floor as part of a WPA project. The Pony Express rider in Saddle Silly (Jones, 1941) runs into a warpath that is under WPA construction.


Warren Foster, Mike Maltese, and Tedd Pierce were probably the three most important writers at the Warner studio from 1937, when on-screen credits for stories started to be awarded, through 1964, when the studio closed. Each of these writers was, either together or alone, responsible for dozens of the cartoons made by Warner Brothers, and worked with most (if not all) of the major directors. Each of them put in at least 20 years as writers with the studio. Maltese and Pierce, in the late 1940s, worked together for the Jones and Freleng units.

Other writers had rather short careers, at least as far as on-screen credit is concerned. In some cases, however, a writer was associated almost exclusively with a certain director:

Others had a wide range of experience with many different directors, even over a short period of time. These would include the following, primarily from the late 1930s and early 1940s:

Other writers have too few credits to make any real judgment as to their influence at the studio. These would include

Some animators occasionally received story credit. These would include

Chuck Jones received credit for writing or co-writing a number of his cartoons, as did Friz Freleng. Even Bob McKimson received story credit on one occasion. It should be noted, however, that the job of a director at Warner Brothers generally called for him to be responsible for the final state of the dialogue in a cartoon. Thus, in that regard at least, on-screen credits can be seen as underestimating the true influence of directors over story matters.

Until about 1940, writers generally worked in a pool-type arrangement, with directors selecting story men as needed. Gradually, specific writers became associated with specific directors.

It is important to emphasize two facts when considering where credit is ultimately due. The first is the fact that on-screen story credits were not awarded at all until 1937. The second is that the studio used a system of rotating credits between 1937 and 1944, under which a writer might get credit for a cartoon to which he had contributed little, yet might not receive any credit for a cartoon to which he had made major contributions.

By way of example, on page 114 of Chuck Amuck, Chuck Jones gives Tedd Pierce credit for contributing to the following cartoons:

  • Little Lion Hunter (credited to Bob Givens, 1939)
  • Elmer’s Candid Camera (credited to Rich Hogan, 1940)
  • Ghost Wanted (credited to Hogan, 1940)
  • Bedtime for Sniffles (credited to Hogan, 1940)
  • Inki and the Lion (credited to Hogan, 1941)

Contributions of 1930s-1940s era writers like Howard, Hogan, Miller, Millar and Hardaway might thus be very greatly underestimated. This is particularly likely with Howard, who has few on screen credits, but is constantly cited -- particularly by Jones and Maltese -- as a major influence on the studio. Sadly, the contributions of pre-1937 writers are virtually untraceable, given the unfortunate state of record-keeping at Warner Brothers.


Notable vaudeville comic, known as “The Perfect Fool” who was an early success on radio as the Texaco Fire Chief, which is referenced in one of the ads shown in I Like Mountain Music (Harman/Ising, 1933) giving his trademark, drawn out “soo-o-o-o”. Another caricature can be seen listening to the Edward G. Robinson dog in Hollywood Canine Canteen (McKimson, 1946) wearing a funny hat, another trademark of Wynn’s.


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This page was originally maintained by Stephen Worth. Thanks to John K. for funding its production. Preserved by Kip Williams and restored in 2014 by Harry McCracken.
The Warner Brothers Cartoon Companion is Copyright © 1996-1998
E. O. Costello. All rights reserved.